Enamel Hypoplasia of tooth enamel in children is the abnormal development of the enamel or, rarely, its absence (aplasia), caused by pathological processes during the dental germ formation and the tooth growth.
Hypoplasia is manifested in the quality, as well as the quantitative changes of enamel. Primary teeth are more disposed to the disease than permanent teeth. Temporary teeth are also more susceptible to systemic hypoplasia, meanwhile, the permanent teeth are more often affected by local hypoplasia.
According to family dentists in New York, the causes of primary teeth enamel defects in children are different:
• the maternal diseases , experienced by the mother during childbearing (rubella, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis, severe course of influenza, HIV);
• poor, unvaried diet, anemia, suffered by the pregnant woman;
• toxemia during the period of pregnancy;
• the chronic diseases of the endocrine system of the mother;
• the treatment, involving certain medications, including tetracycline antibiotics, hormones.
The above mentioned factors are the reasons of primary teeth dental germ mal development, their irregular mineralization and structure defects. An important factor in the development of hypoplasia of temporary teeth are prematurity, birth trauma, asphyxia and some congenital diseases: brain and neurological diseases, disruptions in the endocrine system, congenital syphilis, severe allergies, etc. Children with mental retardation suffer from hypoplasia more often (oftener than 80%).
Practically all of the teeth or a separate group of teeth formed in the period of fetal development (group hypoplasia) can be affected by systemic enamel hypoplasia. In this case, all teeth (or the group of teeth) are marked by identical symmetric teeth enamel defects, the teeth are reduced in size, have the same appearance: the tooth surface is roughened, the color is changed (from yellow sulfur to dark color), sometimes teeth are reshaped. All in all, you shouldn’t put off necessary treatment if you noticed the first symptoms. Depending on the severity of every clinical situation, specialists for kid’s dentistry in New York will offer you various curative measures from prophylactic of caries to filling the vestibular part of teeth with composite materials. Deep defects of enamel and dentin can be also an indication for orthopedic treatment with metal-ceramic crowns.
Permanent teeth are more susceptible to local enamel hypoplasia. Inflammatory processes in the jaw during the formation of the permanent teeth germs is the most often cause. Local hypoplasia observed in one or more teeth. Provoke a malformation of the permanent tooth enamel can:
• deep caries in primary teeth, infecting the permanent teeth through the roots;
• acute viral and bacterial infections in early childhood;
• gastrointestinal tract chronic disease;
• eating disorders, alimentary distrophy, anemia;
• toxic dyspepsia;
• endocrine system malfunction;
• the deficit of calcium, rickets;
• the mechanical trauma of permanent teeth germs.